The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) has revolutionized many aspects of our society, from the way we interact with technology to how we make important decisions. On June 14, 2023, the European Parliament took a significant step by adopting a project for the regulation of AI within the European Union. This initiative stems from the need to address the legal, economic, political, and ethical challenges posed by AI while anticipating its potential pitfalls.

I. Regulation of Artificial Intelligence in Europe

On June 14, 2023, the European Parliament marked a turning point by approving a project to regulate artificial intelligence within the European Union. This historic decision is driven by the necessity to confront the legal, economic, political, and ethical challenges posed by AI while also anticipating potential risks. AI encompasses a wide range of fields, from robotics to machine learning, and its applications extend to areas such as online content recommendation based on user preferences, which relies on the analysis of personal information like browsing histories and social media interactions, enabling algorithms to recommend relevant content.

The AI regulation aims to ensure that the benefits of this technology do not compromise individuals' fundamental rights. It is based on an assessment of the risks associated with the use of AI, ranging from prohibited practices to those deemed high-risk. Prohibited practices could include biometric surveillance and emotion recognition. Furthermore, concerns have arisen regarding potential discrimination caused by algorithmic biases, especially in the financial sector, where AI could deny credit based on geographical criteria, constituting a form of discrimination.

II. Implications and Challenges of AI Regulation in Europe

Regulating AI in Europe carries profound implications for technological innovation and ethics. This legislation imposes obligations on providers and users based on the level of risk associated with AI. AI systems deemed to pose an unacceptable risk, such as those capable of causing severe harm, will be prohibited. This includes cognitive manipulation systems, social credit scores, and real-time remote facial recognition. Some exceptions may be allowed, under specific conditions and with judicial approval.

High-risk AI systems, affecting security or fundamental rights, will be subject to specific regulations. This applies to systems used in various sectors, such as toys, aviation, medical devices, as well as eight specific areas including critical infrastructure management, education, employment, public safety, migration, and more. These systems will need to undergo assessment before being placed on the market and throughout their lifecycle.
The European Parliament also highlights generative AIs, such as OpenAI's ChatGPT, by requiring similar specific obligations as high-risk systems. Bans will remain rare and target applications contrary to European values, such as mass surveillance systems.

AI regulation in Europe marks a significant step in the quest to balance technological innovation with the protection of fundamental rights. It establishes clear rules for AI usage while ensuring that this technology can continue to bring significant benefits to society while minimizing potential risks. The future of AI in Europe will be shaped by this innovative regulation, which may serve as a model for other regions of the World